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Mathematics behind the Zcash
(2020)

Among all the new developed cryptocurrencies, Zcash comes out to be the strongest cryptocurrency providing both transparency and anonymity to the transactions and its users by deploying the strong mathematics of zk-SNARKs. We discussed the zero knowledge proofs as a building block for providing the functionality to zk-SNARKs. It offers schnorr protocol which is further used in Zcash transactions where the validation of sent transaction is proved by cryptographic proof. Further, we deploy zk-SNARKs following common reference string that allows sender to prove that she knows a secret such that the proof is succinct, can be verified and does not leak the secret. Non-malleability, small proofs and effective verification make zk-SNARKs a classic tool in Zcash. We deal with NP problems therefore we have considered the elliptic curve cryptography to provide the security. Lastly, we explain Zcash transaction, the corresponding transaction completely hides the sender, receiver and amount of transaction using zero knowledge proof.